The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is a non-profit organization that aims to improve the security of software applications by raising awareness and providing education, tools, and standards. OWASP is dedicated to providing free and open resources to the security community, and its projects and initiatives are run by volunteers from around the world. Link to the project: https://owasp.org/

The OWASP Top 10 is a list of the 10 most critical web application security risks. It is a widely recognized and referenced list that provides guidance to organizations and individuals on the most important security risks they should focus on when developing or maintaining web applications. The OWASP Top 10 is updated approximately every three years to reflect changes in the threat landscape and evolving best practices.

The OWASP Top 10 risks for the current version (OWASP Top 10 - 2021) are:

  1. Injection: Injection flaws, such as SQL injection, allow attackers to inject malicious code into a web application and execute it on the server.

  2. Broken Access Control: Broken access control can occur when an application provides access to resources based on user-supplied data, such as a user ID, that is not properly validated.

  3. Broken Authentication and Session Management: Broken authentication and session management can occur when an application does not properly protect authentication credentials or session identifiers, such as cookies, from theft or tampering.

  4. XML External Entities (XXE): XXE attacks exploit vulnerabilities in the way XML parsers process external entity references in XML data.

  5. Broken Cryptographic Storage: Broken cryptographic storage occurs when an application stores cryptographic keys or passwords in an insecure manner, such as storing them in plaintext.

  6. Insufficient Logging & Monitoring: Insufficient logging and monitoring can make it difficult for organizations to detect and respond to security incidents in a timely manner.

  7. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): XSS attacks allow attackers to inject malicious scripts into web pages viewed by other users, which can be used to steal sensitive information or perform actions on behalf of the victim.

  8. Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities: Using components with known vulnerabilities can put an application at risk, as attackers can exploit known vulnerabilities to gain access to sensitive information.

  9. Insufficient Security Configurations: Insufficient security configurations can make it easier for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities in an application or its underlying systems.

  10. Insufficient Encryption & Transport Layer Protection: Insufficient encryption and transport layer protection can expose sensitive information, such as passwords and credit card numbers, to eavesdropping or tampering.

The OWASP Top 10 provides a useful starting point for organizations and individuals looking to improve the security of their web applications. By focusing on these critical risks, organizations can better protect their applications and their users from the most common and damaging attacks.

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